'O-lelo Hawai'i is both simpler and more complex that English, and this is far from an authoritative introduction to the language. It would be best to carefully check out a good text on the subject, but since I don't have access to one, I have been forced to rely on a small dictionary, a bunch of example dialogue that I have seen, and a small pinch of guile....
So, if you really must know, check for any words that you want the definitions of below, but if you want to have any hope of understanding anything like a complete sentence, or even a fragment, you'll have to wait a while, and concentrate on the "non-content" words that join everything together.
definite article ("the") before words that start with most consonants except K and vowels other than E, A, and O.
ka wahine ka hale
the woman the house
definite article ("the") before words that start with the vowels E, A, and O and before the consonant K (and some other special case words).
ke kane ke keiki ke aloha
the man the child "love"
na kane na keiki na wahine na hale
the men the children the women the houses
indefinite article ("a" or "an")
he kane he keiki he hale he wahine
a man a child a house a woman
'O-lelo Hawai'i makes a difference between the plural and the dual case, and also indicates whether the speaker is included in the topic or not, as indicated below, which allows speaker and respondent to be quite specific about inter-personnal relationships.
("me 'n you")
("we two, not you")
("we, not you")
*1 Ku'u is the "affectionate" possessive, as in "ku'u 'ipo " ("My Beloved")
*2 ko is neutral and very informal or colloquial.
ke keiki a Lani (the Child of Lani, Lani's Child)
a'e - upward, toward
aku - a way from the speaker
e - imperative or exhortation
iho - down
ma - at, in, on, beside
mai - towards speaker
no - because of